The difference between supercapacitors and batteries

Both ultracapacitors and batteries are energy storage components. But the supercapacitor energy storage process is a physical process, battery energy storage is a chemical reaction process, the two have an essential difference.

The power characteristics of the supercapacitor are better than that of the battery, which can be charged and discharged quickly with large current. The energy density of the battery is higher than that of the supercapacitor, and the energy stored by the battery under the same volume is more. Supercapacitor is a carbon-based active material plus conductive carbon black and binder mixed electrode sheet material, using polarized electrolyte to adsorb positive and negative ions in the electrolyte, forming a double electric layer structure for energy storage, the energy storage process basically does not occur chemical reaction, so the cycle life is very long, the general charge and discharge times reach more than 500,000 times, the battery charge and discharge times are much less, lead-acid batteries 500 times, lithium batteries 1000-1500 times, different types of charge and discharge times are not the same; Ultracapacitors operate at temperatures wider than batteries --40 to 65 degrees.

The use of the two is also different, the super capacitor energy density is low, but its excellent cycle performance, environmental protection, high power makes it widely used in backup power supply, high frequency charge and discharge, high power output and other occasions, and the battery energy density is high, but its own principle limits its life, and overcharge and overdischarge will cause irreversible trauma to it, and not environmentally friendly. However, in the absence of finding energy storage components that can replace such a high energy density, the future is still the world of batteries (lithium-ion batteries) for a long time, and even will replace gasoline and other fuels to become the mainstream of vehicle kinetic energy.

The relationship between the two is that the advantages of the high-power output of the supercapacitor and the ability to accept the high current charge and discharge can be combined with the high energy density of the battery as an improvement in the battery life and energy saving of electric vehicles.

Post time: Sep-19-2023